The earliest lowland Mayan villages date to the Middle Preclassic Period (before 400 BC). Pyramid-building began during the Late Preclassic or Formative Period (400 BC - 150/250 AD). The height of Mayan civilization was from 300 or 600 BC to 900 AD during the Late Classic Period.(3) See NOVA Online - Map of the Maya World for a map and further information.
Even now, Mayan hieroglyphs can not be completely read. The names that follow are an approximation of what Mayan names were like.
Xoc - Principal wife of Shield Jaguar (1)
Zac-Kuk - Mother of Pacal and brief ruler of Palenque (from 612 to 615). She died in 640 A.D. (2)
Six Sky - Daughter of the ruler of Dos Pilas and forceful mother of a king (1)
Ah Cacao - Ruler of Tikal (1)
Butz Chan - Ruler of Copan (1)
Chaan-muan - Ruler of Bonampak in the 8th century A.D. (2)
Chan Bahlum - "Snake Jaguar" - son of Pacal, ruled 683 to 702 A.D. (1)
Cocom - A late Mayapan ruler (1)
Cu Ix - Ruler of Copan (1)
Kan-Bahlum-Mo - Father of Pacal (2)
Kan Boar - Ruler of Tikal (1)
Pacal - "Shield" - Ruler of Palenque who ruled for 68 years, from 615 to 683 A.D. and who was buried in an underground tomb.(1, 2)
Pacal Balam(?) - "Shield Jaguar" - Ruler of Yaxchilan(1)
Tutul Xiu - A rival Mayapan leader (1)
Yax Kuk Mo - Ruler of Copan (1)
Yax Pac - "Sun at Horizon" or "Rising Sun" or "First Dawn" - Ruler of Copan c. 763 A.D. (1)
Yaxun Balam - "Bird Jaguar" - Ruler of Yaxchilan (1)
18 Rabbit - Ruler of Copan (1)
Animal Skull - 22nd ruler of Tikal, ruled c. 562 A.D. when Caracol defeated Tikal (1)
Cauac Sky - Ruler of Quirigua who captured and sacrificed 18 Rabbit of mighty Copan (1)
Curl Nose - Father of Stormy Sky of Tikal (1)
Double Bird - 21st ruler of Tikal, ruled from 537 to 562 A.D. (1)
Flint Sky - Ruler of Dos Pilas c. 645 A.D. (1)
Jaguar Paw - 9th ruler of Tikal (1)
Jaguar-Paw Jaguar - Ruler of Site Q (possibly Calakmul) around 686 A.D. (1)
Jaguar-Paw Skull - 14th ruler of Tikal c.500 A.D. (1)
Jeweled Skull - (1)
Mat Head - Ruler of Copan (1)
Moon Jaguar - Ruler of Copan (1)
Moon Zero Bird - Ruler of Tikal (1)
Smoke Jaguar - Ruler of Copan from 628 to 695 A.D. (1)
Smoke Monkey - Ruler of Copan (1)
Smoke Skull - Ruler of Copan (1)
Smoking Frog - Tikal general who was originally from Teotihuacan or a Teotihuacan-influenced site, such as Kaminaljuyu (1)
Smoking Squirrel - Ruler of Naranjo (1)
Spearthrower Owl - Father of Curl Nose, possibly from a Teotihuacan-influenced site (1)
Stormy Sky - Ruler of Tikal from 426 to 457 A.D. (1)
Waterlily Jaguar - Ruler of Copan (1)
Copan - Copan was a major trading center near the far southeastern border of the Mayan lowlands. Merchants traded with non-Mayan Central America.
Palenque - Palenque was in the northwestern corner of the Mayan-speaking lands near the mountains of modern Chiapas.
(1) Maya Civilization, by T. Patrick Culbert, St. Remy Press, 1993.
(2) The Story of Writing: Alphabets, Hieroglyphs, & Pictograms, Andrew Robinson, New York: Thames & Hudson, 1995.
(3) Ancient Culture of Middle America
Return to the Medieval Names Galleria.
Return to the
Ancient Names Galleria
Return to the main room of the Peiraeus Public Library.
Created before August 2001
Last Updated November 30, 2009